Quantum Link Remarkable Similarities Between Black Holes and Dense Gluon States
Physicists have recently discovered a striking parallel between the properties of massive black holes and the dense states of gluons, the “glue” particles responsible for holding nuclear matter together. The dense gluon states, known as color glass condensate (CGC), arise from the collisions of atomic nuclei and have an incredibly minuscule size, with dimensions reaching only 10-19 kilometers—less than one billionth of a kilometer. On the other hand, black holes can extend across billions of kilometers.
The groundbreaking study demonstrates that both systems are comprised of densely packed, self-interacting force carrier particles. In the context of CGC, these particles are gluons, whereas, for black holes, they are gravitons. The arrangement of gluons within CGC and gravitons within black holes is tailored to accommodate the energy and size of each respective system.
Quantum Information Science Unveils Links Between Black Holes and Gluon Systems
The remarkable degree of order in both CGC and black holes is attributed to the systems’ ability to incorporate the maximum quantum “information” about the particles’ characteristics, including their spatial distribution, velocities, and collective forces. The constraints on “information” content are found to be universal, indicating that quantum information science could offer innovative principles for understanding these seemingly disparate systems.
Furthermore, the mathematical relationship between these systems suggests that examining one can enhance our comprehension of the other. Notably, the comparison of gravitational shockwaves in black hole mergers and gluon shockwaves in nuclear collisions is of significant interest.
Quantum Information Science Sheds Light on Gluon-Black Hole Correspondence
Researchers investigate the strong force in nuclear collisions, such as those occurring at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a Department of Energy user facility. In this process, atomic nuclei accelerated to speeds approaching that of light form dense gluon walls called color glass condensate (CGC). As these nuclei collide, the CGC transforms into a near-perfect quark-gluon liquid, which constitutes the fundamental building blocks of all observable matter.
Although the strong force acts on subatomic levels, recent research by scientists at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the Max Planck Institute for Physics, and Brookhaven National Laboratory has revealed that CGC shares common traits with black holes—massive graviton aggregates that generate gravitational force throughout the universe.
Both sets of self-interacting particles seem to arrange themselves to satisfy a universal limit on the entropy, or disorder, present within each system. This mathematical connection indicates similarities between black hole formation, thermalization, and decay, and the events that occur when gluon walls collide in nuclear collisions at ultrarelativistic velocities—near the speed of light.
The entropy constraint driving this connection is linked to maximal information packing—a fundamental aspect of quantum information science (QIS). Consequently, QIS could contribute to a deeper understanding of gluons, gravitons, CGC, and black holes. This approach might also promote the development of quantum computers utilizing cold atoms to simulate and tackle questions concerning these intricate systems.
Orginal Article: https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.105.056026